FIVE SPECIES

FIVE SPECIES, the varieties of seed to which the halakhot concerning the agricultural produce of Ereẓ Israel apply. The Mishnah lists the five species as ḥittim, se'orim, kusmin, shibbolet shu'al, and shippon (Ḥal. 1:1). They are known in literature by the generic names tevu'ah ("produce," "increase"; Ḥal. 1:2) and dagan ("corn," i.e. grain). In the Bible, however, both terms have a wider meaning; tevu'ah denotes the "increase" of the threshing floor and the winepress (Num. 18:30), the vineyard (Deut. 22:9), and the corn (II Chron. 32:28); and dagan (often juxtaposed to "wine" and "oil") denotes the blessings of the earth. The term bar occurs only in the Bible, and applies to corn from which the chaff has been winnowed (Jer. 23:28; et al.). The exact definition of the five species is problematical. Feliks maintains that three of the five are species of the genus Triticum ("wheat"), and identifies (1) ḥittim as hard and bread wheat (Triticum durum and vulgare); (2) kusmin as rice wheat (Triticum dicoccum); (3) shippon as spelt wheat (Triticum spelta); the last two are species of the genus Horedeum ("barley"); (4) se'orim is six- and four-rowed barley (Hordeumsativum and vulgare); and (5) shibbolet shu'al is two-rowed barley (Hordeum distichum). All five species grew in Ereẓ Israel inancient times, as was not the case with oats (the usual translation of shibbolet shu'al) or rye (that of shippon). According to the halakhah these five species are subject to the laws relating to the blessings said before and after meals (see grace after meals ), to ḥallah (the separation of a portion of dough to the priests; Ḥal, 1:1), to the laws concerning leavened and unleavened bread on Passover (Ḥal. 1:2), and to the prohibition against harvesting or eating produce until the omer has been offered (Ḥal, 1:1). With respect to the law of kilayim (the prohibition on mixing heterogeneous plants in a field), kusmin and shippon are regarded as one species, and se'orim and shibbolet shu'al as another (Kil. 1:1). As regards combining different doughs to form the minimum quantity liable to ḥallah, in which taste is the determining factor, ḥittim and kusmin are reckoned as one species (Pes. 35a). The Talmud records an important dispute between Johanan b. Nuri and the sages. The former maintained that rice, too, was a species of grain and, like the five species mentioned above, was subject to the laws of Grace after Meals, ḥallah, and unleavened bread. He also included as liable to ḥallah, karmit (Pes, 35a), apparently a plant of the order Gramineae which grows in swamps – the Glyceria fluitans. Although Johanan b. Nuri's view was not accepted as halakhah, there were places in Babylonia where ḥallah was separated from dough made of rice, since it was their staple food (Pes. 50b–51a). However, since rice is usually sown after Passover and does not ripen until the end of summer, Johanan b. Nuri is not reported as claiming that the laws of omer apply to it, since this would mean that it could not be eaten until the following spring. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: ET, 4 (1956), 226–9; J. Feliks, Olam ha-Ẓome'aḥ ha-Mikra'i (1957), 139–53; idem, Kilei Zera'im ve-Harkavah (1967), 24–32; idem, in: Sefer ha-Shanah … Bar Ilan, 1 (1962/63), 177–89; Loew, Flora, 1 (1924), 707ff. (Jehuda Feliks)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Five-lined — may refer to:* Five lined Skink, one of the most common lizards in the eastern U.S. and one of the five species of lizards in Canada * Southeastern five lined Skink, common skink in the southeastern United States …   Wikipedia

  • Five Islands Nature Reserve — is a 26 ha reserve comprising five small islands close to Port Kembla, New South Wales, Australia. The islands Flinders Islet, Bass Islet, Martin Islet, Big Island and Rocky Islet lie between 0.5 and 3.5 km off the coast. The reserve was… …   Wikipedia

  • Five Points, Manhattan — Five Points intersection painted by George Catlin in 1827; the triangular building in the center is located on what would be known as Paradise Square , Anthony Street veers off on right, Cross Street on the left and Orange Street runs left to… …   Wikipedia

  • Five-rayed sanddab — Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Actinopterygii …   Wikipedia

  • Five Mile Landing, Topock Marsh — Five Mile Landing is located on the east side of the Topock Marsh along the Colorado River. Boating Facility Features* Boats To Rent * Motors To Rent * Licenses For Sale * Groceries * Gas and Oil * Tackle and Equipment * Live Bait Fish * Any… …   Wikipedia

  • Five Cereals (China) — Proso millet head Wheat (wheatberries) …   Wikipedia

  • Species 8472 — Star Trek race|if= bgcolor=#ffffff Name=Species 8472 Caption= Size= BaseOperations=Fluidic space Affiliation=None Borgspecies=8472Species 8472 is a fictional extraterrestrial race in the science fiction television series that inhabits another… …   Wikipedia

  • Five-striped Sparrow — Taxobox name = Five striped Sparrow status = LC | status system = IUCN3.1 regnum = Animalia phylum = Chordata classis = Aves ordo = Passeriformes familia = Emberizidae genus = Aimophila species = A. quinquestriata binomial = Aimophila… …   Wikipedia

  • Five-colored Munia — Taxobox name = Five colored Munia status = LC | status system = IUCN3.1 regnum = Animalia phylum = Chordata classis = Aves ordo = Passeriformes familia = Estrildidae genus = Lonchura species = L. quinticolor binomial = Lonchura quinticolor… …   Wikipedia

  • Five-toed Pygmy Jerboa — Taxobox name = Five toed Pygmy Jerboa fossil range = Recent status = VU | status system = IUCN2.3 regnum = Animalia phylum = Chordata classis = Mammalia ordo = Rodentia familia = Dipodidae subfamilia = Cardiocraniinae tribus = Cardiocraniini… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.